Get knowledge about of Bhartendu Harishchandra Biography

Maria James


Bhartendu Harishchandra is known as the father of modern Hindi literature as well as Hindi literature. He is one of the most influential Hindi writers of modern India. He is also a respected poet. He was also the author of many plays. In his work he used all the tools like report, publication, translation and media for social opinion.

He used to write any article under his surname “Rasa”, Harishchandra in his writings depicted the suffering of the people, the poetry of the country, dependence, inhuman exploitation, the unrest of the middle class people and the hindrance in the development of the country. He was an influential Hindu “traditionalist” who interpreted Hinduism using Vaishnavism. Here we will explain Bhartendu Harishchandra biography in details.



Born in Banaras, Bharatendu Harishchandra’s father was Gopal Chandra, who was a poet. He used to write his surname under the name of Girdhar Das. Bhartendu’s parents died when he was young but his parents had a great influence on Bhartendu. Acharya Ramchandra Shukla narrated how Bharatendu visited the Jagannath Temple of Puri in Orissa with his family in 1865, when he was only 15 years of age.

The Bengal Renaissance period had a great impact on him during this visit and it was only then that he decided to compose social, historical and mythological plays and Hindi novels. Due to this influence, in 1868, he adapted the Bengali play Vidyasundar into Hindi language.

Bharatendu spent his whole life in the development of Hindi literature. In 1880, scholars of Kashi gave him the title of “Bhartendu” in a social meeting with the aim of recognizing him as a writer, patriot and modern poet. Renowned literary critic Ram Vilas Sharma also described him as the most influential of Hindi literature and the father and hero of modern Hindi literature.

Bhartendu Harishchandra had also made important contributions in the field of journalism, drama and poetry. He had edited a magazine like Kavi Vachan Sudha in 1868. In 1874, through his articles, he gave the slogan of Swadeshi Adoption to the people of the country using the product made in the country, After this, in 1873, Harishchandra had requested the people of the country to use indigenous items in Patrika and Bal Vodhini. He was also a member of the Chaudhary family of Varanasi, who belonged to the Agarwal community. His ancestors were the Landlords of Bengal. He also has a daughter. He has also written the vast history of Agrawal community.


Play –

Bhartendu Harishchandra entered theater as an artist and soon he became director, manager and playwright. He used the theater to seek public opinion. His main plays are as follows –

  • Vaidiki Himsa Hitansaa Na Bhavati, 1873
  • Jabbalpur
  • The Plight of India, 1875
  • Mythological Satya Harishchandra (Sacha Harishchandra), 1876
  • Neel Devi, 1881
  • Andher Nagari, 1881, This is the most famous play in modern Hindi dramas. Which has also been translated into many languages ​​in India.


Poem –

  • Bhagat omniscient
  • Prem Malika (1872)
  • Prem Madhuri (1875)
  • Prem Tarang (1877), Prem Pralap, Prem Fuhalwari (1883) and Prem Sarovar
  • Holi
  • Madhu Mukul
  • Raga Collection
  • Varsha Vinod
  • Vinay Prem Pachsa
  • Bunch of Flowers
  • Chandravali, 1876 and Krishna Charitra
  • Uttara Bhagat Mal

Bhartendu Harishchandra also did journalism with poetry. He edited many magazines. At the age of 18, he brought out a magazine named ‘Kavivachansudha’ in which the works of great scholars of that time were published. After this, he brought out magazines named ‘Harishchandra Magazine’ in 1873 and ‘Bala Bodhini’ for women’s education in 1874. Along with this, literary institutions were also created parallel to him, Under this, he established ‘Tadiyya Samaj’ for the promotion of Vaishnav devotion. He did commendable work in both the country’s language and literature. During the freedom movement.

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